Significance and Use of Walnut: A Review

Persian Walnut. Photo from Piklist.com. Free to use.

This review summarises ethnobotanical use, pharmacology, nutritional value, preclinical and clinical studies, toxicity, other uses and current research prospects of Juglans regia L. (Walnut).

Walnut leaf has been found to possess the following properties of potential clinical significance:

  • Antimicrobial, antifungal and anti-viral.
  • Anti-inflammatory.
  • Antidiabetic.
  • Antityrosinase (against skin hyperpigmentation).
  • Anti-cancer

Walnut bark shares some of these properties but in particular, it is anthelmintic.

Walnut fruit (the nut) is antidepressant, antitrigliceridaemic, hepatoprotective, anti-amyloidogenic improves motor and cognitive performance.

Nael Abu Taha and Mohammed A. Al-wadaan (2021) Significance and use of walnut, Juglans regia Linn: A review. Advanced Journal of Microbiology Research ISSN 2736-1756Vol. 15 (1), pp. 001-010, January, 2021.

Plantago major improves liver enzyme levels in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

Image: Jan Kops: Flora Batava, Volume 4 (1822). Public domain.

This randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial showed a reduction in liver enzymes ALT and AST as well as serum triglycerides in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease who took 2 g Plantago major (Common Plantain) seed twice weekly for 12 weeks.

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2021/6693887/

Seyedeh Ferdows Jazayeri, Roshanak Ghods, Fataneh Hashem Dabaghian, Asie Shojaii, Seyed Ali Al-Hadi Moravej, Ebrahim Khadem, Seyed Saeed Seyedian, “The Efficacy of Plantago major Seed on Liver Enzymes in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial”, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2021, Article ID 6693887, 7 pages, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6693887

Stinging Nettle and Evening Primrose for Rheumatoid Arthritis

This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial from Iran indicates that taking Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) or Evening Primrose (Oenothera biennis L.) can reduce some of the biomarkers and inflammatory markers associated with rheumatoid arthritis, although over the three month period of the trial there was no significant difference in patients’ symptoms.

Abd-Nikfarjam B. et al. (2021). Therapeutic Efficacy of Urtica dioica and Evening Primrose in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Research Square. DOI: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-309562/v1 (Retrieved 30/03/2021).

N.B. This is a preprint, a preliminary version of a manuscript that has not completed peer review at a journal.